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What Mutations Are Tested?

EGFR

Tests are available to detect EGFR mutations, including the T790M resistance mutation, using tumour tissue and plasma ctDNA.

EGFR mutation testing can be performed at different times, such as at the time of diagnosis or if NSCLC progresses while the patient is undergoing treatment. To learn more about the timing of EGFR mutation testing, please see the section "When is Mutation Testing Done".

The EGFR T790M mutation, which is not usually detectable when a patient is first diagnosed, is found in about 60% of patients who have developed resistance to a treatment called EGFR-TKI.

The status of EGFR mutations can help the healthcare team determine if a targeted therapeutic approach is appropriate.

MET & HER2

Another type of resistance to EGFR-TKI treatment can be caused by changes to one of two cell receptors, known as MET and HER2. These types of mutations occur less frequently than EGFR mutations, with MET mutations accounting for only about 5% of patients with resistance to EGFR-TKI treatment, and HER2 for about 13%.

Other Biomarkers

Other identifiable biomarkers in lung cancer include:

  • ALK
  • KRAS
  • ROS1
  • PD-L1

Therapies for ALK-mutated NSCLC and PD-L1 NSCLC have recently been approved.

However, new therapies to treat patients who have the KRAS, ROS1, HER2 or MET biomakers, are currently being investigated.